How apple cider vinegar may assist overmethylators

This publication suggests that acetate, derived from acetic acid, may assist the brain and other organs in reducing inflammation. That it does so specifically by acetylating DNA histones, explains the effectiveness of products such as organic apple cider vinegar in managing overmethylators.

Overmethylators, who may be identified by a histamine blood test, would benefit because acetyl-CoA competes with methyl compounds at the DNA histone. Whichever molecule binds to the histones determines if the cell turns to the slow mode or fast mode. In other words, histone and methylation control the activation of the cell and the product of their DNA transcription to produce proteins.

In summary, apple cider vinegar’s affect on histones could be very good for overmethylators. And consequently it may not be so good for undermethylators. Inadequately nourished or supplemented overmethylators have a tendency manifest symptoms of verbosity, paranoia, phobias and at the further end of the scale auditory and delusional schizophrenia. Dr William Walsh PhD believes that as many as 46% of persons with schizophrenia are overmethylators.

 

Acetate supplementation increases brain histone acetylation and inhibits histone deacetylase activity and expression.

Soliman ML1, Rosenberger TA.

Author information

Abstract

Acetate supplementation increases brain, heart, and liver acetyl-CoA levels and reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. Because intracellular acetyl-CoA can be used to alter histone acetylation-state, using Western blot analysis, we measured the temporal effect that acetate supplementation had on brain and liver histone acetylation following a single oral dose of glyceryl triacetate (6 g/kg). In parallel experiments, we measured the effect that acetate supplementation had on histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymic activities and the expression levels of HDAC class I and II enzymes using Western blot analysis. We found that acetate supplementation increased the acetylation-state of brain histone H4 at lysine 8 at 2 and 4 h, histone H4 at lysine 16 at 4 and 24 h, and histone H3 at lysine 9 at 4 h following treatment. No changes in other forms of brain or liver H3 and H4 acetylation-state were found at any post-treatment times measured. Enzymic HAT and HDAC assays on brain extracts showed that acetate supplementation had no effect on HAT activity, but significantly inhibited by 2-fold HDAC activity at 2 and 4 h post-treatment. Western blot analysis demonstrated that HDAC 2 levels were decreased at 4 h following treatment. Based on these results, we conclude that acetyl-CoA derived from acetate supplementation increases brain histone acetylation-state by reducing HDAC activity and expression.

Metallothionein MT Promoter Therapy

Alzheimer’s and MT Promoter Therapy

Alzheimer’s and MT Promoter developed by Dr William Walsh Phd.

NOTES FROM 10/18/16

Notes from Dr Walsh’s presentation at the October 2016 Physician Workshop and Training Conference.

Alzheimers was named after the Doctor bearing his name. Hallmarks of this condition include

  1. Apoptosis – spontaneous death of cells at rate of 5000 times normal.
  2. Severe oxidative stress – inflammation and tissue damage.
  3. Neurofibrillary tangles – twisted fibers inside brain cells. Derived from microtubules that are responsible for transporting nutrients to nerve cells.
  4. Metal problems – initially believed to be aluminum, then brain volume, then concentration of aluminum. Theory of metal toxicity is back in favor with issues of role of copper and zinc recognized as playing a more important role.

Dr Walsh has developed an amino acid blend, called MT Promoter which is intended to improve metallothionein protein production. One such protein, ceruloplasmin is important for binding or chelating ‘free metals’. Unbound copper and other metals are free radicals that cause tissue damage. From a neurotransmitter standpoint, free copper lowers dopamine, the reward and executive thought neurotransmitter, and raises levels of norepinephrine, an excitatory neurotransmitter.  To prevent this conversion and avoid other effects of oxidative stress, we like to increase these binding proteins. In addition to MT Promoter, binding proteins level improves with improved consumption and digestive uptake of protein.  Metallothionein proteins are found in border cells of the digestive track and brain. They are believed to be a first line of defense against free radical damage.

There are believed to be two types of Alzheimer’s conditions:

  1. Genetic – runs in some families – out of 5-6 siblings, 1-3 will get this, as they get progressively older
  2. ApoE – genetically expressed proteins – Believed now that 50% of people 85+ have some amount

 

Signs and symptoms of progressive worsening condition:

  1. Early warning signs – often as early as 55-60 years old
    1. Lose interest in schedules – move away from life
    2. MCI
    3. Why recent/old – as memories formed, as sensory nerves strike outer part of brain and lay down inputs, memories are processed, info transferred to hippocampus and base of brain parts, processed/organized, then back where it came from and laid down as memory
  2. Moderate symptoms
    1. Inability to form new memories
    2. Years 4-6
    3. Often require nursing home – though may not be bothered by this
  3. Later stage
    1. Awful
    2. Complete loss of speech and response
    3. Some may have some understanding of who’s there but unable to respond

Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s

  1. Only realized in mid-50s had something to do with age
    1. Prior didn’t have long enough lifespan
  2. Many documented cases of boxers
    1. Family of well-known boxers in England – all developed
    2. Also football players – more and more cases now
  3. Education – big surprise
    1. Someone in MI developed ability to measure amyloid plaque level in alive human being – proportional to disorder in autopsies
    2. People who never went past HS, vs. college – factor of 5 difference – Even stronger if didn’t finish 8th grade
  4. Keep mind as active as possible
    1. If retired and learn new language or learn something new
  5. Sedentary FAR more likely
  6. Vascular Alzheimer’s Disease – not vascular dementia
    1. Most begins very close to blood vessels
    2. People with hypertension AND hypotension are more prone
  7. Alcohol abuse – factor 2-3
  8. Toxic metals – seen in high levels
  9. Poor nutrition
    1. Lots to do with glial cells nourishing all neurons
    2. Need nutrition to stay healthy, or neurons deteriorate and die

 

Diagnostic tests for Alzheimer’s:

  1. MMSE – common
  2. Best test – CANTAB – from Yale
    1. Like video game test – spend 45” going through the test
    2. Measures many cognitive functions, not just memory
    3. He got that to test his people pre/post
  3. Odor discrimination – entorhinal cortex is first to go
    1. Scratch and sniff, differentiate smells in multiple choice
    2. Correctly tell 10+ – very low likelihood of Alzheimer’s Disease development
    3. If 2-4, chances within 5 years much higher
    4. He gave to a good friend, who flunked the test – dad had died of Alzheimer’s Disease
      1. Had been getting affairs in order, then found out had a bad cold that day!
      2. Totally normal on retest, repeated since
    5. Direct measure
      1. Not yet FDA approved – research only

Theories:

  1. Ach
  2. Amyloid – losing favor
    1. They have gunky material in brain when they die
    2. As it grows, when it touches neuron, it dies – they thought
    3. 12-13 years ago – discovered drug to eliminate plaque from rat brains, rushed to human testing
      1. At first, so exciting. Got rid of plaques with mild-mod Alzheimer’s Disease
      2. Bad news – didn’t change trajectory of disease – still deteriorate and die
    4. Tau
      1. Makes the tangles
      2. Still leading theory
    5. Inflammation
      1. Could be this alone?
      2. Curcumin theory – India incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease in old people – 90yo – very small
        1. Curcumin very able to reduce inflammation in brain
      3. Oxidative stress
        1. Present in almost every neurodegenerative condition
      4. Toxic metal causation
        1. Persuasive Alzheimer’s Disease research on copper
      5. Could also be glial and nutrition related

ApoE isoforms:

  1. Small protein, linear
  2. Cysteine is great antioxidant
  3. When replaced progressively by arginine, raises risk
  4. Most people with Apoe4 don’t get it – 40-45%
  5. 40% of Alzheimer’s Disease have neither

FDA approved:

  1. Can improve symptoms 6-12 months (actually 4-6 in practice)
  2. Does not stop progress
  3. Enables dying brain to function a bit better – just what’s left works better

Case for Metallothionein:

  1. As much as anything else in brain, protective of metals
  2. If don’t have above-average levels of these metals, highly unlikely to form plaques
  3. Fresh brains with and w/o Alzheimer’s Disease – those who died OF Alzheimer’s Disease had less than 1/3 of normal conc
  4. Very intriguing

MT Promoter for Alzheimers:

  1. He had already developed for autism
  2. Formulation of 22 nutrients that promote synth and fxn of MT
    1. They looked at over 900 studies to see which nutrients promote expression of Alzheimer’s Disease, and which promoted function of brain once expressed
    2. They found by taking it themselves that there ARE side effects if low in Zn
    3. Zn is a metal-regulating element actually on DNA – tends to promote expression of MT
    4. But, it gets expressed without Zn (naked molecule) which immediately grabs Zn, dropping blood level, and causing irritability
  3. Zn loading followed by MTP
    1. Do this till plasma zinc reaches 100 mcg/dL
  4. Aimed at overcoming brain oxidative stress and inflammation, and repair of the BBB
    1. Prevents bad stuff from coming in

MT Promoter for Alzheimer’s Disease:

  1. Unproven until RCTs confirm efficacy
  2. Very promising results
  3. Don’t give to anyone without good quality of life – don’t preserve them in state of misery, so NOT advanced
  4. Have to have caretaker
william.walsh.podcast

Methylation and Epigenetics – William Walsh PhD Podcast

Methylation Overview:

New discoveries in the field of epigenetics have led to effective advanced nutrient therapies for children and adults challenged by brain disorders, such as autism, Alzheimer’s, depression, bipolar, schizoaffective disorders, and ADHD/ADD. A Walsh panel can determine a clients’ methylation status, and thus a treatment based on their biochemical individuality. Dr. David Epstein, D.O., offers full assessments and specific recommendations to clients according to the Walsh protocol. Second Opinion Physician is a holistic telemedicine practice, specializing in nutrient therapies developed by Dr William J Walsh and the Walsh Research Institute.

Podcast below provide by:

The CoreBrain Journal Walsh Molecular Series: 

Dr Walsh provides a more detailed description of the significance of methylation and epigenetics and the consequence of undermethylation or overmethylation on mood and mental function. CLICK ARROW BELOW TO BEGIN:

 

About Dr Walsh               

William J. Walsh, PhD, FACN, president of the nonprofit Walsh Research Institute, is an internationally recognized expert in the field of nutritional medicine and a key scientist paving the way for nutrient-based psychiatry and nutritional medicine.  Over the past 30 years, Dr. Walsh has developed biochemical treatments for patients diagnosed with behavioral disorders, attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, autism, clinical depression, anxiety, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease that are used by doctors throughout the world.

His book, Nutrient Power: Heal Your Biochemistry and Heal Your Brain [updated May 2014], describes specific findings for his evidence-based nutrient therapy system.

Dr. Walsh’s noted accomplishments include:  (a) groundbreaking studies reporting reduced violent behavior following nutrient therapy, (b) the 1999 discovery of undermethylation and copper/zinc imbalances [Coming: CBJ/034] in autism, (c) the 2000 finding of metallothionein protein depletion in autism, (d) the 2007 published study linking copper overload and post-partum depression, (e) the identification of five biochemical subtypes of clinical depression, (f) the 2011 development of the Walsh Theory of Schizophrenia [Coming: CBJ/042], and (g) the direction of the Beethoven Research Project that revealed that the composer suffered from severe lead poisoning.

His internationally acclaimed presentations, including for the American Psychiatric Association, affirm his important contributions to both functional and traditional medical groups.

Clinical Experience

After earning degrees from Notre Dame and the University of Michigan, Dr. Walsh received a PhD in chemical engineering from Iowa State University.  While working at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1970s, Dr. Walsh organized a prison volunteer program that led to studies of prisoners and ex-offenders researching the causes of their violent behavior.  The collaboration with renowned (late) Carl C. Pfeiffer, MD, PhD, a pioneer in the field of nutritional research therapy, led Dr. Walsh to the development of individualized nutrient protocols to normalize body chemistry and brain chemistry. Dr. Walsh went on to study more than 30,000 patients with mental disorders acquiring an unparalleled database of more than 3 million chemical assays during his clinical and research work.

NB: Dr. Walsh has conducted chemical analysis of more than 25 serial killers and mass murderers, including Charles Manson, Richard Speck, James Oliver Huberty, Patrick Sherrill and Arthur Shawcross.  He has assisted medical examiners, coroners, Scotland Yard, and the FBI in these forensics studies. He has designed nutritional programs for Olympic athletes, NBA players, major league baseball players, a heavyweight boxing champion, PGA and LPGA golfers, and others.

 

Dr Walsh Podcast – Interviewed by Neil Nathan, MD

Healing Mental Illness with Chemistry (Internet Radio Interview)
Interviewed by Neil Nathan, MD, The Cutting Edge of Health and Wellness Today

Dr. Walsh has conducted chemical analysis of more than 25 serial killers and mass murderers, including Charles Manson, Today, I am delighted to be joined by Dr. William Walsh, the author of “Nutrient Power,” a ground-breaking book which reviews his 30 years of research and clinical experience. Dr. Walsh has authored more than 200 scientific articles and reports and directs an international physician-training program and has developed biochemical therapies used by doctors throughout the world to help patients with depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. Please join us for this important program.

 

 

Treat Elevated Histamine, Naturally

undermethylation and histamine therapy

Whole blood histamine levels are tested when determining cause of depression and other mood disorders.

Histamine is reduced or broken down by methyl compounds and so with high histamines the body may become depleted in the methyl groups. Because histamine depletes methyl compounds, it is easy to identify ones methylation status from their histamine levels. Elevated histamine depletes methyl compounds and the resulting undermethylation leads to depression and a host of other mood disorders.

Some common symptoms of undermethylation:
·    OCD obsessive compulsive tendencies
·    SAD Seasonal affective disorder
·    Competitive & perfectionist
·    SSRI medications usually effective
·    Calm exterior with inner tension
·    Strong willed
·    High libido
·    Seasonal allergies

Using the Walsh protocol to treat undermethylation I recommend supplements high in methyl compounds such as the amino acid methionine and SAMe (s-adenosyl methionine).

Diet is also an important factor. Foods that are high in methionine include lean meats, egg whites, poultry, halibut and other fish, soy beans, white beans and brazil nuts. SAMe and methionine help break down histamine by methylating it. Vegetarians and people with high histamine have a hard time getting sufficient methyl compounds in their diets and should be encouraged to take methionine supplements.

Histamine Intolerance:
Another approach to improving methylation status lies in reducing histamine levels in the first place. To this requires a study of one’s health condition and assessment of factors that raise histamine.

Histamine rich foods: Foods that are associated with high histamine levels include fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kombucha, pickles, wine, yogurt, mature cheeses and fermented soy products. It also includes cured, smoked and fermented meats such as salami and sausage, etc. Tomato paste, spinach and canned fish products also have high histamine levels. Citrus foods are histamine liberators which increase histamine release and so should also be avoided.

Histamine is chemically known as a “biogenic amine”. Fermented foods have high levels of these biogenic amines. These are foods that are exposed to microbial decomposition as part of the fermentation or in storage. Lactic acid bacteria are the most problematic biogenic amine producers in fermentation. These bacteria break down amino acids into amine-containing compounds. Biogenic amines are commonly found in wines, cider, dairy, meat, fish, beer, spinach, tomatoes and yeast. Biogenic amines in the form of histamine are the product of bacteria breaking down amino acids. Control biogenic amines to treat elevated histamine

Diamine Oxidase DAO
This is an important enzyme that naturally lowers histamine levels in the body. DAO can be provided as a supplement to lower histamine levels. Symptoms of low DAO includes:
·    Skin irritations – hives, itching, rashes, eczema, psoriasis, and acne
·    Headaches
·    Painful menstrual periods
·    Gastrointestinal symptoms
·    Intolerance to fermented foods and alcohol
·    Mucous in sinuses
·    Asthma

Supplements and OTC meds that increase DAO levels include:
·    Vitamin C
·    Vitamin B6
·    Pancreatic enzymes
·    Benadryl

Foods and meds that inhibit DAO
·    Alcohol
·    Curcumin (turmeric)
·    Cimetidine – an antihistamine

 

histamine methylation depression

Histamine and Mast Cells
Histamine is released from “mast cells”. Mast cells are immune cells that line the mucous membranes of the sinuses, digestive tract, the skin, lungs, eyelids, and tissues surrounding blood vessels and nerves. Activation of mast cells plays a key role in asthma, rhinitis, eczema, itching, pain, autoimmunity and hives. Elevated mast cells are associated with female infertility and decreased sperm motility. Stabilize mast cells to treat elevated histamine.

Supplements that stabilize mast cells:
·    Quercitin
·    Curcumin (also decreases DAO)
·    Reishi mushrooms
·    Yohimbine
·    Adrenaline
·    Eleuthero
·    Rutin
·    Theanine
·    Astragalus

Cortisol and Corticotropic Releasing Hormone CRH
It is commonly believed that cortisol causes allergies. That’s only part of the picture. The fact is that cortisol itself lowers histamine levels. It is the hormone that stimulates the adrenal release of cortisol that causes histamine release from mast cells. Chronically elevated CRH is associated with stress, as the release of CRH causes cortisol release from the adrenal glands. Under chronic stress, cortisol levels are low as the adrenal glands become exhausted and cannot produce sufficient cortisol. Yet the CRH hormone is likely elevated in chronic stress because the  hypothalamus releases CRH via the HPA axis as the body is trying to induce more cortisol to address the stress perceived by the brain. Chronic stress is thereby a major cause of histamine release from mast cells due to the effect of corticotropic releasing hormone CRH. We can make assumptions about the level of CRH and cortisol by testing salivary cortisol levels. Because they have a circadian rhythm we test four salivary cortisol levels in a day to establish the overall performance and need for supplementation. Treating elevated cortisol or depressed cortisol levels requires a salivary cortisol test and understanding of the underlying condition.

Herbs and cortical extracts are used to down regulate or supplement the adrenal gland performance. This has the effect of lowering CRH and mast cell release of histamine.

Histamine and Lectins
Foods such as potatoes are high in lectins. Lectins can bind the lining of the intestinal wall and cause leaky gut syndrome. Undigested lectins then enter the blood system and lead to antibody formation and which releases histamine. Foods high in lectins include:

·    White potatoes and unmodified potato starch
·    Tomatoes
·    Soy
·    Gluten containing grains
·    Legumes

Histidine Decarboxylase HDC
The conversion of the amino acid histidine into histamine takes place with the help of HDC enzyme. It is possible to slow the conversion of histidine to histamine by inhibitors of HDC.

Inhibitors of HDC are:
·    Cortisol
·    Catechins – found in green tea, chocolate, kola nut, peaches, acai, apricots, apples, blackberries, raspberries, plums with skin and broad beans
·    SAMe
·    NAC N-acetyl cysteine
·    Homocysteine
·    Carnosine
·    Treat any underlying infection of H Pylori (very common with gastritis)

Histamine and Probiotics
Probiotics in the digestive tract are responsible for producing many compounds in the body. There are bacterial strains that increase histamine as well as intestinal microbes that reduce histamine.
Decreases histamine –  B infantis, B lognum and L plantarum
Increases histamine – L casei, L reuteri and L bulgaricus

Summary of supplements and recommendations to lower histamine while treating undermethylation:

·    Take methionine (500mg-1gm) and SAMe (200mg) supplements
·    DAO diamine oxidase enzymes 2-3 caps
·    Probiotics B infantis, B longum, L plantarum
·    Vitamin C 1000 mg
·    B6 (can also increase histamine carboxylase)
·    Avoid lectin in diet – potatoes and tomatoes
·    Avoid fermented foods
·    Increase proteins high in methionine
·    Use Cromolyn – OTC mast cell stabilizer
·    Bendryl
·    Bromelain and Quercitin
·    Chocamine 1-3 grams – mast cell stabilizer
·    Improve adrenals with herbal and glandular supplements
·    Curcumin (also decreases DAO)
·    NAC N-acetyl cysteine
·    Catechins (green tea etc)

Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

An summary of characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Provided by helpguide.org

In both children and adults, the signs and symptoms of the autism spectrum disorders include problems with social skills, speech and language, and restricted activities and interests. However, there are enormous differences when it comes to the severity of the symptoms, their combinations, and the patterns of behavior.

Keep in mind that just because your child has a few autism-like symptoms, it doesn’t mean he or she has an autism spectrum disorder. The autism spectrum disorders are diagnosed based on the presence of multiple symptoms that disrupt your child’s ability to communicate, form relationships, explore, play, and learn.

Where does your child fall on the autism spectrum?

The three autism spectrum disorders share many of the same symptoms, but they differ in their severity and impact. Classic autism, or autistic disorder, is the most severe of the autism spectrum disorders.  Milder variants are Asperger’s Syndrome, sometimes called high-functioning autism, and PDD-NOS, or atypical autism. According to the Autism Spectrum Resource Center, only 20% of people on the autism spectrum have classic autism. The overwhelming majority fall somewhere on the milder range of the spectrum.

Since the autism spectrum disorders share many similar symptoms, it can be difficult to distinguish one from the other, particularly in the early stages. If your child is developmentally delayed or exhibits other autism-like behaviors, you will need to visit a medical professional for a thorough evaluation. Your doctor can help you figure out where, or even if, your child fits on the autistic spectrum.

Signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Social skills

Basic social interaction can be difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders. Symptoms may include:

  • Unusual or inappropriate body language, gestures, and facial expressions (e.g. avoiding eye contact or using facial expressions that don’t match what he or she is saying).
  • Lack of interest in other people or in sharing interests or achievements (e.g. showing you a drawing, pointing to a bird).
  • Unlikely to approach others or to pursue social interaction; comes across as aloof and detached; prefers to be alone.
  • Difficulty understanding other people’s feelings, reactions, and nonverbal cues.
  • Resistance to being touched.
  • Difficulty or failure to make friends with children the same age.

Signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Speech and language

Problems with speech and language comprehension are a telltale sign of the autism spectrum disorders. Symptoms may include:

  • Delay in learning how to speak (after the age of 2) or doesn’t talk at all.
  • Speaking in an abnormal tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm or pitch.
  • Repeating words or phrases over and over without communicative intent.
  • Trouble starting a conversation or keeping it going.
  • Difficulty communicating needs or desires.
  • Doesn’t understand simple statements or questions.
  • Taking what is said too literally, missing humor, irony, and sarcasm.

Signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Restricted behavior and play

Children with autism spectrum disorders are often restricted, rigid, and even obsessive in their behaviors, activities, and interests. Symptoms may include:

  • Repetitive body movements (hand flapping, rocking, spinning); moving constantly.
  • Obsessive attachment to unusual objects (rubber bands, keys, light switches).
  • Preoccupation with a specific topic of interest, often involving numbers or symbols (maps, license plates, sports statistics).
  • A strong need for sameness, order, and routines (e.g. lines up toys, follows a rigid schedule). Gets upset by change in their routine or environment.
  • Clumsiness, abnormal posture, or odd ways of moving.
  • Fascinated by spinning objects, moving pieces, or parts of toys (e.g. spinning the wheels on a race car, instead of playing with the whole car).

How children with autism spectrum disorders play

Children with autism spectrum disorders tend to be less spontaneous than other kids. Unlike a typical curious little kid pointing to things that catch his or her eye, autistic children often appear disinterested or unaware of what’s going on around them. They also show differences in the way they play. They may have trouble with functional play, or using toys that have a basic intended use, such as toy tools or cooking set.  They usually don’t “play make-believe,” engage in group games, imitate others, or use their toys in creative ways.

Related signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders

While not part of autism’s official diagnostic criteria, children with autism spectrum disorders often suffer from one or more of the following problems:

  • Sensory problems – Many children with autism spectrum disorders either underreact or overreact to sensory stimuli. At times they may ignore people speaking to them, even to the point of appearing deaf. However, at other times they may be disturbed by even the softest sounds. Sudden noises such as a ringing telephone can be upsetting, and they may respond by covering their ears and making repetitive noises to drown out the offending sound. Children on the autism spectrum also tend to be highly sensitive to touch and to texture. They may cringe at a pat on the back or the feel of certain fabric against their skin.
  • Emotional difficulties – Children with autism spectrum disorders may have difficulty regulating their emotions or expressing them appropriately. For instance, your child may start to yell, cry, or laugh hysterically for no apparent reason. When stressed, he or she may exhibit disruptive or even aggressive behavior (breaking things, hitting others, or harming him or herself). The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities also notes that autistic kids may be unfazed by real dangers like moving vehicles or heights, yet be terrified of harmless objects such as a stuffed animal.
  • Uneven cognitive abilities – The autism spectrum disorders occur at all intelligence levels. However, even kids with normal to high intelligence often have unevenly developed cognitive skills. Not surprisingly, verbal skills tend to be weaker than nonverbal skills. In addition, children with Autism spectrum disorders typically do well on tasks involving immediate memory or visual skills, while tasks involving symbolic or abstract thinking are more difficult.